Sunday, 26 February 2017

In the name of science

Installing GPS and seismic instruments in Antarctica involves quite a lot of work.

First, you need to get together all the kit you will need: the instruments themselves, the power supplies for the instruments, the tools to install the instruments, the sledges to drag the kit across the ice, the mountaineering equipment to keep you safe as you drag the kit across the ice, plus a field guide, a plane, a pilot, and perhaps a spare pair of hands.

Organised chaos: loading the Twin Otter
Once you’ve found all of this, you need to weigh the kit (so the pilot knows how much fuel to put in the plane), estimate how long the work will take, and get ~350kg of odd-shaped items organized into a sensible number of sensible-shaped items so they can easily be loaded onto a plane.

For a standard install I got it down to around 20 items, ranging from a fierce-looking 5kg pick-axe to a large, unwieldy 45kg metal frame (which holds the solar panels), plus a large assortment of  durable boxes (cardboard and snow don’t mix) and lumps of metal. As the plane is loaded I can be seen carefully ticking off the items - my biggest nightmare was that I’d forget a crucial tool or instrument component.

Napping on P-bags during the flight
Along with all of this each person is responsible for bringing their own spare clothes, food, first aid and suncream for the day, as well as ensuring that their ‘P-bag’ is on the plane. Your P-bag contains your sleeping bag. Actually, it contains the fluffiest sleeping bag in the world, plus a karrimat, a thermarest, a sheepskin rug, a sleeping bag liner, and another rug-like layer that doubles as a pillow. The whole lot is bundled up into a large canvas bag that is very comfortable to lie on if you fancy a nap during the plane journey.

What I did not pack was a toothbrush.

Or anything to read.


On 11th November 2016 a chilled-out team of two scientists, two field guides, an engineer and a pilot loaded up a British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Twin Otter aircraft and flew ~170 miles from Rothera to a small rocky outcrop at the top of Leppard Glacier, near the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, and just 40 miles from the Larsen C ice shelf. It was a little chilly at our landing site, partly because we were at ~1700m altitude and, well, partly because we were in Antarctica. But spirits were high as we unloaded the plane and began to drag the kit up to the outcrop that we’d spotted from the air.

An easy stroll to the outcrop - you can see the plane down on the ice
Hard at work installing the GPS equipment
It was a perfect outcrop. We quickly located a solid piece of rock for the GPS instrument – when you are trying to measure land movement of a few millimetres a year, it is no good placing the GPS on a pile of rubble – a were feeling pretty pleased with ourselves as we set about the final few tasks associated with the installation of this precision instrument after a swift three hours (this is good).

The radio crackled. Mark, the pilot, relayed information from the team who had headed up a mountain a few miles away looking for geological evidence of how the ice sheet has been thinning over time. They’d spotted some cloud drifting in and were heading back.

Mark heading back to the plane in the fog
Things happened quickly in the next hour. As Mike and Tom headed back from the mountain they were swiftly pursued by the cloud, and as we aborted our attempts to get the electronic components of the GPS up and running we scrambled back to the plane, which although only 500m away, was rapidly disappearing.

Too late.

The fog enveloped us and visibility dropped to 50m. Well, it might have been 50m; it’s hard to tell when everything around you is white.



It was 5 o’clock in the afternoon on Friday. After tensely waiting in the plane for a couple of hours, poised to take off if the visibility cleared, we conceded that it was time for a brew. The temperature had dropped to minus 20 outside, and it was getting chilly sitting inside a cocoon of metal, so we dug a stove out of the tail of the plane and began melting snow. I decided not to point out to the others that I knew the chefs were cooking pizza back at base.

Time for a brew - thanks Al!
Updates from the meteorological team in Rothera suggested that a break in the clouds might be heading our way. So after tucking into a rehydrated meal the decision was made to keep watch for a gap in the clouds through the night. This isn’t as hard as it sounds as it doesn’t actually get dark; ‘night’ just refers to a time when it is a bit colder. Well quite a lot colder.







Camping next to the plane







Three of us piled out of the plane to put up a tent and snuggle into cozy sleeping bags, while the other three found themselves a space on the floor of the plane. Now, I love camping in Antarctica, and actually enjoyed a toasty night’s sleep, but apparently it was a less pleasant experience sitting silently in the cockpit of the plane for several hours, peering through ice-covered windows, looking for a gap in the clouds...



It was day two, and from this point I can’t be sure of the precise order of events, but I think you’ll see why. The strange thing about being stuck in the middle of nowhere is that you don’t know how long you’ll be there. There’s a certain hope that pervades for a while, an assumption that you must get out sometime that day. This lasts throughout the morning as you feast on a cup of tea and some broken biscuits liberally smeared with tinned butter, awaiting the next weather update from Rothera, but it fades in the evening as your feet and hands go numb with cold and you resign yourself to another dehydrated evening meal.
Mmm, breakfast
Good spirits in the back of the plane (L-R): me, Mike, Octavian, Tom, Mark in the background and Al behind the camera

Mark, our pilot, keeping warm
The worst thing was having nothing to do. No book, no pack of cards, no music. I’d brought some knitting, which hopefully didn’t drive the others too mad(?), and one person did have a kindle on board, but we managed not to fall out over the pursuit of reading matter (and I suspect the batteries didn’t fare that well anyway). Octavian did pounce on the opportunity to read the handbook listing the rules and regulations for flying an aircraft in Antarctica, and good humour was maintained by discussing who we would eat first if we ran out of food, and seeing who could hold out the longest to go to the toilet. In fact, one of the things that struck me throughout our extended mini-break was the fact that no-one got cross. It is not easy to spend four days stuck in a small, cold plane with people you don’t know that well and not get a little tetchy, and in particular our pilot Mark was incredibly patient, especially given that we’d forced him to miss Sunday brunch.


Daily entertainment involved heading outside for an hour or two to dig the plane out of the snow that the wind repeatedly packed around the skis, and on the third day we were very excited to see the shadow of the wing on the snow outside! A shadow means sun, and indeed, peering upwards the sky certainly seemed to be tinged with blue, but gazing horizontally we were still only greeted with fog. We were surrounded by ridges of mountains, and since the pilots rely primarily on visibility rather than instruments for navigation, we needed the fog to shift before we could head anywhere.

Mark clearing snow from the top of the plane

By day four we had run out of chocolate, and optimism was wearing thin by the early afternoon. Al headed outside without explanation, and we wondered if we’d missed him saying ‘I may be some time’, but then we spotted him doing some headstands in the snow. This seemed to bring the luck we’d been missing.

The butter was getting low...

The view out the window on day 4 - is this a good sign?
A little later one of the other BAS planes made a detour to check out our location and there followed a cheery radio conversation along the lines of:

Them: We can see you, the cloud isn’t very thick.

Us: We can see you too, we just can’t see sideways!

But soon afterwards the outcrop where we’d been installing the GPS three days earlier came into view, and then the mountain beyond, and suddenly it looked like we might make it home that day after all. After another flurry of digging, we secured the cargo and all eyes were on Mark. Ok, he nodded, this could be it. There followed an unbearable half hour where the fog drifted in and out, never quite lifting, never quite giving us a clear view… and then we were airborne.

Out of the cloud at last!
It’s amazing how quickly you return to normality. As we landed at Rothera we were greeted by a few more folk than usual at the hangar, but the main task was to unload our cargo, stow it in the right container, and get the plane prepared for another day’s work. Delivering science in these extreme circumstances is all in a day’s work (or four) for the team at Rothera. They are not only some of the most skilled people in the world at their job, but they’ll also keep you alive in the process.


I headed over to the Operations Manager: “Now about that unfinished GPS installation…”

Rothera. Home.

Tuesday, 15 November 2016

The same, but different

I’ve been back in Rothera for two weeks now.
Some things are just the same, while others are very different...

The first thing that is the same is the fact that I’ve been (almost) continually busy ever since I arrived. The first few days were filled with refresher training sessions – first aid, working around planes, communication systems, how to give a weather observation, and various field techniques including crevasse rescue.
In the field you'll often be travelling on skis. Now, do they have size 4 boots...?

The next few days were spent locating all of my kit again, charging batteries, testing equipment, modifying some of the electrical systems, pre-building kit to save time in the field, mending a few bits and pieces, and training up the people who’ll be helping me with my instrument installs.

Testing a seismometer - one of the instruments I will install in the field
And then suddenly it was time to fly! But more of that next time…


Base life
Many things about life in Rothera are the same as my last visit:

It was great to be re-united with the winterers, and hear their stories of hardship and camaraderie. My delivery of climbing magazines from the last six months went down well the field guides, and we were treated to a live gig by the “winterer’s band” last weekend.

Reading material in the toilets - tractor-driving is an important skill here

It’s also exciting to return to a place where you’re so close to all the action. There is a runway right next to the accommodation block, and people head out to wave to the planes as they take off and land.

The beautiful Dash-7 landing at Rothera, just outside my office

The communications tower is visible from all over base and the comms team are constantly in touch with planes and field parties all over the continent. All around base there is the reassuring crackle of VHF radio as people ask permission to cross the runway or track down items or people. There is an aircraft hanger across the way; a generator shed that ensures constant power across the base; workshops for carpenters, electricians and plumbers; a lovely crew of chefs in the kitchen keeping us all fed; a boating shed; a recycling shed (very little ends up as normal ‘rubbish’); a sewage treatment plant; and a busy garage that keeps all the tractors, skidoos and other large machinery in working order.
Comms tower surrounded by 6-foot deep snow - care is needed not to walk off a small cliff!

By far the weirdest thing that is the same about Rothera is the smell! I’d not noticed it when I was here before, but each building has a particular smell. In fact, different parts of the some of the buildings have a distinctive smell that I instantly remembered as I walked along the various corridors. I guess you notice these things when you are otherwise just surrounded by rocks and ice.

Supermoon from Rothera


Things are different too:

I was previously here at the end of the summer, and to get between buildings you had to walk across an expanse of large cobbles. Not so in November! When I arrived everywhere was covered by several metres of squeaky snow, making the trek between buildings a very pleasant experience.
Accommodation block - the view isn't great out of some of the windows

However, the tractors have been hard at work, and in the last week that lovely snow has largely been bulldozed away. We’re not quite down to the cobbles yet, but with the increased number of people on base traipsing around, and warmer temperatures, the whole place is now covered by sheet ice. Eek!

Exposing those wretched cobbles!

The other thing that is different is the sea, or lack of it. Rather than being surrounded by open ocean dotted with icebergs, we’re surrounded by some pretty stubborn sea ice that is showing no sign of breaking up. We’re due to have a ship call in to re-supply the base in two weeks, but at the moment the ice extends around 30km to the south and 100km to the north! The boating crew are looking very bored, and it means no penguins so far this year.

Icebergs trapped in sea ice between Rothera and Porquoi Pas Island (20 km away)

So I was just getting into the swing of changing my shoes every time I entered a building, and dealing with the contrasting temperatures inside and outside, when we jumped on a plane and headed off to do some science. Unfortunately, this was the point at which the weather turned, and a day’s work turned into a long weekend away stranded many miles from anywhere…
Kit for the field - do I have everything I need?

Saturday, 29 October 2016

Ready to go!

Somehow I've made it through the last few weeks! I've had a lot of fun learning about ocean circulation and atmospheric chemistry with the undergrads, I've submitted a paper, contributed to a couple more, attended some really productive project meetings, enjoyed shaping the progress of PhD students old and new, hosted some great speakers at Durham, spent some time discussing how we can support our colleagues through the next REF exercise, sat on an interview panel, been patched up by my physio, survived the annual round of freshers' flu, tied up fieldwork odds and ends, got linux running on my laptop, and fielded those emails from all time zones that begin "if you have time before you go away...."

So as you can imagine, I'm looking forward to heading south - away from convenient internet and a packed diary. But this also means heading away from my friends and colleagues, who keep me smiling even when things get a little crazy. My husband, Duncan, has tidied up the chaos that I've left in my wake as I've rushed around these last few weeks, and I will miss his amazing ability to make me laugh every single day.

While I'm away I'll make new friends, and catch up with old friends who have been overwintering at Rothera. It's difficult to step into another community, especially when the work I'll be carrying out can be stressful at times, but I know from last year that Rothera is a special community that instantly makes you feel at home.



My final important achievement this week has been to get my two piece of hold luggage under 23kg. Now I just need to get them safely to Newcastle - Heathrow - Madrid - Santiago - Punta Arenas, and eventually Rothera. I can't wait to step off the last plane into a biting cold wind...

Tuesday, 4 October 2016

Packing

There’s less than a month to go before I head back south to Antarctica and everything is …well ... nearly ready. It’s a little more complicated than just packing my warmest clothes and jumping on a plane, so here’s a run-down of what I’ve been up to preparing for this field season.


Communication
The instruments I installed last season have been sitting out the Antarctic winter. We expect there to be some interruption to the measurements since our main power source is solar, but now the sun has risen again everything should have powered up and we should be recording data again ...although, in reality, we have no idea whether anything is working!

At the moment our instruments aren’t transmitting data to the outside world, and chatting to BAS staff last season it became apparent that this puts a big strain on their resources. These sort of instruments currently needed to be visited every year to check everything is working. But if everything is fine they could just be left to record data for a couple of years without going through the hassle of trying to get a plane out to these remote locations (although I suspect the pilots secretly enjoy the challenge!).

So over the past few months I’ve been liaising with other scientists who run remote instruments, including my colleagues on the UKANET project, to find a solution. We’ve managed to pull together just enough in the budget to purchase five XI-202's - clever little yellow boxes that can be programmed to send updates via satellite, letting us know that everything is working as we expect.

This isn’t the end of the story though. Ideally we’d like to install slightly more sophisticated (and hence more expensive) systems that won't just transmit 'state of health' messages, but also all the raw data straight to our computers back at home, thus removing the need to ever visit the sites again… well so long as the electronics and power supplies survive the Antarctic weather. Watch this space!


New toys
A box full of instruments and cables arrived in Durham a few weeks ago, and with the help of the patient folk at UNAVCO I’ve been trying to work out how everything fits together. I think I’ve got everything sussed...

let's just get everything out...

and this should go in here...

or maybe...erm...

...perhaps it goes in here?

I wonder what the instructions actually say?

ah! It goes in here :-)


The next step is to make sure all our paperwork is sorted so we make it smoothly through customs on the journey south. Some of the equipment we’ll be installing this season has already been shipped direct from Australia to Chile, although apparently some of it ended up in Belgium!! Why is nothing ever simple?


Countdown
There won’t be much time spent dreaming of penguins and snow over the next few weeks as the undergrads are back in town and somehow all my teaching has to be packed in before I leave. But with the crack across Larsen C having grown significantly over the austral winter it's even more important to get the final few instruments installed and recording the background rate of land uplift before this ice shelf potentially goes the same way as Larsen B.

To help get a better handle on the changes that are happening in the Antarctic Peninsula I’ll be accompanied by Antarctic addict Mike Bentley, who will be piecing together the glacial history of the region. This will be his 12th(?) trip to Antarctica, so I’m sure everything will go smoothly…


Thanks as ever to everyone who has provided training, equipment, advice, and funds. This project is led by Matt King and funded by the Australian Research Council, with logistical support from the British Antarctic Survey.

Thursday, 10 March 2016

10 things...

I’m now back in the UK, with drizzle outside my office window rather than sparkling snow and comical penguins. Having been away for a month there is plenty to keep me busy back in the Geography Department at Durham University, but the memories of Antarctica will take a long time to fade. Here are a few things that I will particularly miss…

1. Getting my hands dirty
For most of my working life my toolkit has consisted of a pen, paper, and lots of computers. As I headed into the field with essentially a 300kg meccano kit and lots of tools that I didn’t even know the name of, memories of playing with technic lego and building 3D models came flooding back from my childhood. It was great to get back to basics, and feel the satisfaction of building something where my tools were drills, spanners and a voltmeter rather than pen and paper. I think my proudest achievement of the trip was learning to solder.
not my usual set of tools
Even a mathematician can spot that this rock should not be here
2. Flying
Flying will never be the same after sitting in the cockpit of a Twin Otter and having the pilot explain what all the dials and switches are for; watching clouds silently weave around inaccessible peaks; enjoying the ride as we bounce our way home through bad weather; and trying to recall the physics that explains how we are somehow able to magically float across the sky in a lump of metal.
yes, we should probably turn left soon...
coming into land
How much kit can you fit in a Twin Otter?
3. Wildlife
Penguins are very cool. I am not cool when watching penguins. I still get excited at even a couple of Adelie penguins dozing by the runway. One evening I spent so long standing watching the penguins round the back of the point that I didn’t notice a pincer movement being set in motion: The cries of the penguins on land attracted a group who had been hanging out on an iceberg. Suddenly a gaggle of penguins shot out of the water and onto the snow next to me. I was surrounded!
Penguin pow-wow - spotted from the bar at Rothera
4. The view from my office
One sunny afternoon in my office in Old Bransfield House, I was gazing up at the rocky buttress at the top of the snow ramp, looking for inspiration on my latest paper, when a Basler suddenly purred its way down the runway not 100m from where I sat. You don’t get that in Durham. I may have let out a whoop of excitement.
evening clouds over Jenny Island
end of the day 
Rothera sunset 
5. Fuchs House
Even in the most miserable weather, as you climb up the steep steps and push open the door of Fuchs House a warm glow envelops you as you enter a world of sledges, skis, climbing equipment, tents, stoves, sleeping bags, and lots of books. It was here that we practiced crevasse rescue on ropes hanging from the loft whilst trying not to land on the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Government or the Director of BAS; I learnt how to adjust ski bindings; and it was the starting point for all forays into the surrounding hills.
Mushroom Buttress: we climbed the inviting crack centre of shot
6. Outside the flagline
Inside the flagline is good. A peaceful few hours spent gliding round the plateau on cross country skis is a good way to unwind from a day of work. But a better way is to find a Field Guide and head outside the flagline and into Stork Bowl to sample some powder! Or skidoo up to Mushroom Buttress to sneak in a two-pitch rock route before dinner. Surely this much fun shouldn’t be allowed on a school night?
Stork bowl powder 
sunset as I skied around the flagline
7. Waste
Now I'm back in the UK it is strange not to have to think about which recycling bin to throw my rubbish in, or question whether I should even be throwing the item away - could it be used for something else? Do I really need the light on? Do I really need a shower today?! People are very careful about energy use in Rothera, hopefully Britain will catch up one day!

I don't have any photos of  rubbish (although I have many rubbish photos), so here is some cool crevassing 
8. Music
At the opposite end of the 'rubbish' spectrum is music! Whilst I was in Antarctica the musical skills of the residents of Rothera were on display at ‘Acoustic Night’ and during the Burns’ night ceilidh (a chaotic affair, at least on the dancing side…). For a small community (~80 people) the array of talent was impressive, and as people performed cool covers of old favourites and songs they’d written themselves I resolved to step outside my comfort zone of classical music in the future. Although, I don’t think I will ever master the skill of performing the Indiana Jones theme tune just by blowing into my hands…
I also don't have photos of music, so here is some more scenery: looking along Reptile Ridge back towards Rothera - can you spot the skidoo? 
9. Equality
Although we were a little slow to get in on the act (women roughly came in as the dogs went out in the mid-90’s) there is now a good mix of men and women at Rothera, and there is no pigeon-holing of what task you should be taking on based on your gender. While I was south there were women working in the communications tower, taking charge of science cargo, running the marine lab, running the diving program, providing the weather forecasts, and flying planes, as well as carrying out research into anything from oceanography to atmospheric physics. Indeed, the current director of the British Antarctic Survey is a woman. However, my own bid for equality was not completely successful, and it quickly became apparent that pulling a heavy sledge uphill through soft snow is best left to the boys if you want to make it back to the plane any time soon.
Stunning ridge lines 
Mysterious mountains in the mist
Clouds cascading off the Antarctic Peninsula plateau
Weather in the mountains
Untouched (?) rock
10. People
The thing I will miss most about Antarctica is the people, their attitude towards life, and their attitude towards each other. Rothera is almost self-sufficient (completely so in winter), and this is reflected in the way people look out for each other, and in the roles that they adopt. With a small community you don’t hear people saying ‘oh, that’s someone else’s job’; everyone mucks in, and they develop a keen sense of spotting a problem and doing something about it. I am hoping that some of this will have rubbed off on me and that my time at Rothera has made me a slightly better person.
Cape Disappointment team: (L-R) Chucky, Erin, me, Ted, Chris
A final thank you
As well as sending a huge thank you to all the folk down at Rothera and back at the British Antarctic Survey in Cambridge, I am also grateful to: Matt King for getting this project off the ground and then suggesting I should be the person that heads to the other end of the world for a month; Anya Reading and the UNAVCO boys for training me to install GPS receivers and seismometers; Mike Bentley for advice and enthusiasm on all things Antarctic; and Duncan for all his support (and for feeding the cat while I was away).

time to head home...